Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis as the basis of anthropology

Roman Tratch


The existence of four directions of psychoanalysis realization in modern psychology is argued in the historical-psychological research, that is as an original method of treatment of neuroses and other mental disorders exclusively in a verbal way; as a theory of personality, that is, as a system of scientific knowledge about the formation of human character; as a systemic, often shocking, critique of Western civilization and as a new philosophy and thus a kind of worldview that sheds the light of truth on the unconscious sphere of its life. The historical way of formation of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis as a separate, biologically determined, naturally centered and culturally influential current of psychological science of the XX century is highlighted and the motivating influence of concepts and themes of B. Pascal, F. Nietzsche and especially J. Charcot is indicated on this formation, firstly as an idea and research program, then as a theory and method of psychotherapeutic practice. The exceptional importance of Freud’s creative collaboration with his older colleague Joseph Brier is emphasized, the productivity of which is confirmed by the jointly published book “The Study of Hysteria” published in 1895. It is it which initiates the expansive psychoanalytic discourse. It is noted that the idea and concept of displacement became the central core of Freudian psychology and made it possible to understand both individual works of fiction and classical works of art. It is stated that translations of selected Freud’s works into the native language were received by Ukrainian scientists only at the end of the last century, which, however, does not diminish the importance of psychoanalysis as a theoretical-empirical foundation of anthropology. Finally, based on the rich legacy of Philip Lersch, a conclusion is formulated about the prospects of a phenomenological approach to the cognition of human mental life in the context of urgent tasks of both theoretical psychology and applied, practice-oriented.

Ключові слова

psychoanalysis; psychotherapy; character; libido displacement; sublimation; critique of civilization; psychoanalysis as philosophy; mental life; neurosis; unconscious; sexuality; dreams; behaviorism; cognitive psychology

Повний текст:



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