Peculiarities of the formation of early attachment models in children with traumatic experiences


  • Mariana Shved Ph.D. student of the Department of Theoretical and Practical Psychology Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv.



early attachment models, types of psychological trauma, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mentalization


This article presents the results of a meta-analysis of relevant studies published in English literature between 2010 and 2022, focusing on the definition of traumatic experience, types of psychological trauma, early attachment models, and the concept of mentalization. The search services PsycInfo, PubMed, APA Web-of-Science, and Research Gate were used to accomplish the set objectives. The influence of childhood traumatic events on the development of primary attachment models was explored. It was established that early attachment models are internal representations or perceptions formed during childhood, that determine a child’s perception of close individuals and their relationships. The effectiveness and scientifically substantiated aspects of the Neurosequential Model in Education and the Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT) in working with children who have experienced traumatic events are described. It was found that childhood traumatic experience affects seven main aspects of psychology: sensory development, dissociation (changes in consciousness), attachment, affect regulation, behavioral regulation, cognitive domain, self-awareness, and identity development. Each type of traumatic experience has its conditions, characteristics, mechanisms, and consequences for the formation of early attachment models in children and overall psychosocial functioning. Thus, understanding the entire spectrum of changes, including neurobiological aspects, is crucial when working with children who have experienced traumatic events and require specialized support. This analysis revealed that the quality of parent-child interaction depends on parents' ability to mentalize and their capacity to understand the child‘s inner world, which, in turn, influences the formation of early childhood attachment models. Depending on the presence or absence of traumatic experiences in a child's life, different attachment styles can be developed. The identified generalizations shed light on the pathogenesis of relationship trauma-related disorders and can be practically applied in the development and implementation of professional recommendations or programs for psychosocial support for children who have experienced traumatic events. Emphasizing the necessity for further empirical research to gain a more detailed understanding of this issue.


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How to Cite

Shved, Mariana. “Peculiarities of the Formation of Early Attachment Models in Children With Traumatic Experiences”. Psyhology & Society, no. 2, Dec. 2023, pp. 194-03,