Ontological modeling of the psychological field of a play


  • Oleg Khairulin Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Docent of the Humanities Institute of National University of Defense of Ukraine named after Ivan Chernyakhovskyi, the member of the editorial board and permanent author of the Psychology and Society journal, major-general of the reserve, Kyiv. oleg_hairulin@ukr.net ORCID: 0000-0001-7042-7948 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7042-7948




psychological cognition, methodological optics, objectivism, apriorism, logicism


The problems of checking and experimental verification for new knowledge remain relevant since foundation and development of scientific psychology. Historical evidence of this is the long and permanent methodological disagreements between the leading psychological branches (such as behaviorism, psychoanalysis, gestalt psychology, psychosynthesis, activity psychology, cognitive psychology, psychophysiology, coaching) and most other psychological branches. The absence of a methodological architectonics universal for psychology, an optimal design of checking and experimental verification for new scientific knowledge causes deserved criticism and comments on the objectivity of psychological research. The problems of checking and verifying new psychological knowledge are primarily associated with the dominance of the laboratory-experimental method in science; presumption of a causal model of scientific rationality; neglect of the possibilities of the intelligible multidisciplinary mode for scientific objectivism; perceived as secondary potentials and advantages of postnonclassical scientific rationality as well as factors of volatility of changes in social experience, features of the post-industrial (information) society and postmodern reality. The expressive features of the psychological research for actual objects of scientific knowledge are related to the fact that the most complex objects are phenomena that in the scientific sense are of fundamental importance as cultural universals, objects of the intelligible reality of eternal entities (Aristotle, Averoes (Ibn Rushd), I. Kant, J.-F. Herbart , E. Husserl, etc.). For example: communication, labor, socialization, intersubjectiveness, power, emergentness, creativity, collective knowledge, love, civilization, game, synchrony, moral act, disposition, social value, group reflection, collective unconscious, command spirit, attractiveness, trust, discourse, narrative and other. Also, these objects have an important region-generative value (E. Huserl), expressive epistemological (M. Foucault), cultural-historical (L. Vygotsky) and diachronic (F. de Saussure) aspects of scientific knowledge. The gnoseological content and volume, other features of cultural universals, similar to the games phenomenon, objectively complicate the content and choice of scientific research criteria, the standards for the representativeness of the empirical sample, the content, order and protocols of valid data correlation. Under such conditions, the presumption and dominance of the classical naturalistic experimental method (natural or laboratory experiment) is a untrustworthy and conditionally reliable methodological basis. The presented objective problems of modern systems of empirical verification for the results of psychological research, in particular, the problems of the game, require the search for more reliable foundations for the methodological program of verification for scientific knowledge. Important aspects of such a search are also the need to take into account the characteristics of the post-industrial (information) society and postmodern reality in psychological cognition, to use the advantages of postnonclassical scientific rationality. The important scientific contribution is the universality of such a program in relation to promising psychological research, as well as, if necessary, to the revision of existing scientific knowledge. The implementation of such tasks (on the example of the reconstruction for the games psychological field) makes it possible to use the status and role of a psychological tool for a methodological facility, which is ontological designing (the names “formal ontologization” and “ontological engineering” are used synonymously). In the circumstances of psychological research, ontological designing is a specially organized intelligible descriptive method for experimental verification of the results of psychological research. The product of applying the methodology of ontological designing in the circumstances of the games psychological research is the formation of an epistemological intelligible substrate – a descriptive cognitive field of the scientific object “game” with a verification function for this field. Because of the formation for a games psychological research on the basis of ontological designing and the universal norms of the categorical matrix for modern socio-humanitarian theory (the levels of “concrete”, “single”, “special”, “general” and “universal”), epistemic, hermeneutic heredity of psychological knowledge, rational empiricism is also possible. In the framework of the our research, ontological designing is: a) the psychological method of descriptive reconstruction of scientific knowledge; b) a facility of verifying the results of a psychological research for the scientific object “game”; c) a productive program for completing the games psychological research as a universal, a fundamental polyphenomenon that has a distinct non-spatial and timeless socio-psychological genesis, a complex structure and functionalism; d) the thinking style of a modern scientist for a socio-humanitarian profile in the circumstances of fleeting changes in empirical material; e) a facility for creating an architectonic intelligible model-matrix of a cognitively full-weighted, harmoniously structured, optimally exhaustive, logically balanced, hermeneutical coherent, epistemically relevant, constructively understandable games psychological field. The scientific basis for the methodological modernization of the norms for verifying the results of the games psychological research based on ontological designing is the approaches that implement the program of philosophical apriorism and logicism, the methodological positions of analytical philosophy, postnonclassical-oriented principles, approaches, facilities, tools and standards of psychological knowledge. The ontological model of the games psychological field includes five levels for scientific empirical conceptualization: 1) the level of the concrete, one-time empirical natural science fact of the hic et nunc game (a naturalistic empirical fact established “here and now” through the latest, fresh natural or laboratory experiment); 2) the level of the single, separate games manifestations in its epistemic, cultural-historical empiricism (the experience of empirical facts “here and now” – experiment, the results of past naturalistic facts available to the researcher); 3) the level of the distinctive, special explications of the games invariants, depending on the different ontogenetic conditions of such a manifestation (age dependencies; features of human development, stages of his socialization, social and professional self-realization, etc.); 4) the level of the general, common attributes and modes of the games explications, present in each fact of the entire play-based empiricism of the current and previous cultural-historical range accessible to the researcher; 5) the level of the universal – the level of attributes of the games phenomenon, which do not depend on existential, primarily chronological, spatial, situational prerequisites and are inherent in any, even imaginary, simulated, probable the games manifestation. Such foundations make it possible to synchronize the diachronic and synchronous aspects of the historical-rational process of the scientific knowledge for the game in a general research program. The formalized structural composition and regularities of construction of the ontological model of the subject games area is based on an established set of entities connected by various relationships (thesaurus, term/concept, attribute of a concept, relation of concepts, class/set of terms/concepts, axioms/rules/constraints of concepts and their relations, instance, etc.). On the range of research conceptualization, according to the levels of the categorical matrix, such an designing order is optimally suitable for creating an architectonic intelligible model-matrix of the psychological field of the Game.


Basiuk T.M. Ontolohichnyi inzhynirynh: navch. posib. Lviv: Vydavnytstvo Lvivskoi politekhniky, 2017. 224 s.

Vavryniuk, T. (2008). Problema spivvidnoshennia movy i buttia u filosofii Liudviha Vithenshteina [The problem of the relationship between language and being in the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein]. Filolohichni studii, 2. 10-15. https://doi.org/10.31812/filstd.v2i0.974 [in Ukrainian].


Vakulenko M.O. Ukrainska terminolohiia: kompleksnyi linhvistychnyi analiz : monohrafiia. Ivano-Frankivsk : Foliant, 2015. 361 s.

Vyhotskyi, L. (2023) Istorychne znachennia psykholohichnoi kryzy. Metodolohichne doslidzhennia [The historical significance of the psychological crisis. Methodological research.]. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo. 1. 6-94. https://doi.org/10.35774/pis2023.01.102 [in Ukrainian].


Vilard van Orman Kvain (2015). Dvi dohmy empiryzmu. [Two dogmas of empiricism]. Sententiae, 2. 9-26 [in Ukrainian].


Furman, A.V. & Furman, O.I. & Shandruk, S. K. & Co (Eds.). (2019). Vitakulturna metodolohiia: antolohiia. Do 25-richchia naukovoi shkoly profesora A.V. Furmana [Viticultural methodology: an anthology. To the 25th anniversary of professor A.V. Furman's Scientific School]. Ternopil: TNEU [in Ukrainian].

Huberskyi, L.V. (2019). Kyivska svitohliadno-hnoseolohichna shkola druhoi polovyny KhKh stolittia [Kyiv worldview and epistemological school of the second half of the 20th century]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

Zhovtianska, V.V. (2020). Psykholohiia reprezentatsii diisnosti [Psychology of representations of reality]. Kyiv: Talkom [in Ukrainian].

Karpenko, Z.S. (2009). Aksiopsykholohichni dzherela metodu modeliuvannia u psykholohii osobystosti [Axiopsychological sources of the modeling method in personality psychology Axiopsychological sources of the modeling method in personality psychology]. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo, 4. 138-144 [in Ukrainian].

Krushevskyi, A.V. (1977). Teoryia yhor [Game theory]. Kyev: Vyshcha shkola [in Ukrainian].

Furman, A.V. & Furman, O.I. & Shandruk, S.K. & Co (2019). Metodolohiia i psykholohiia humanitarnoho piznannia. Do 25-richchia naukovoi shkoly profesora A.V. Furmana [Methodology and psychology of humanitarian cognition. To the 25th anniversary of professor A.V. Furman's scientific school]. Ternopil: TNEU [in Ukrainian].

Moskalets, V.P. (2020). Psykholohiya hry ta ihrovoho zmistu inshykh vydiv diyal'nosti [Psychology of the game content of other activities]. Psykholohiya i suspilstvo - Psychology and society, 2, 46-66 [in Ukrainian].


Rohushyna, Yu.V., Hladun, A.Ya., Osadchyi, V.V., & Pryima, S.M. (2015). Ontolohichnyi analiz u Web [Ontological analysis in the Web]. Melitopol: MDPU im. Bohdana Khmelnytskoho [in Ukrainian].

Rassel, B. (1995). Istoriia zakhidnoi filosofii [History of Western philosophy]. Kyiv: Osnovy [in Ukrainian].

Romenets, V.A. & Manokha, P.I. (2017). Istoriia psykholohii XX stolittia [History of psychology of the twentieth century]. Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukrainian].

Sabadukha, V. O. (2019). Metafizyka suspilnoho ta osobystisnoho buttia [Metaphysics of social and personal existence]. Ivano-Frankivsk: IFNTUNH [in Ukrainian].

Semiotychnyi analiz yavyshch kultury [Semiotic analysis of cultural phenomena]. (2021) Kyiv: Instytut filosofii imeni H.S. Skovorody NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].

Synytsia, A.S. (2018). Prahmatyko-kohnityvna interpretatsiia suchasnoi analitychnoi filosofii [Pragmatic-cognitive interpretation of modern analytical philosophy]. Doctor's thesis. Lviv [in Ukrainian].

Furman, A.V. (Ed.). (2021). Systema suchasnykh metodolohii : khrestomatiia u 4-kh tomakh [The system of modern methodologies] (Vol. 4). Ternopil : ZUNU [in Ukrainian].

Filosofskyi entsyklopedychnyi slovnyk. Kyiv : Abrys, 2002. 742 s.

Furman, A.V. (2022). Arhitektonika teoriyi diyal'nosty: reflecsivno-vchunkoviyi scenariyi metametodolohuvannia [Architectonics of activity theory: reflexive-deed scenario of metamethodologization]. Psykholohiya i suspilstvo - Psychology and society, 1, 7-94 [inUkrainian].


Furman, A.B. (2016). Ideia i zmist profesiinoho metodolohuvannia [The idea and content of professional methodology]. Ternopil : TNEU [in Ukrainian].

Furman, A.V. (2023). Katehoriina matrytsia vitakulturnoi metodolohii: vid myslevchunennya do kanony [Category matrix of vitaculture methodology: from thinking to canon]. Psykholohiya i suspilstvo - Psychology and society, 2, 6-50 [in Ukrainian].

Furman, A.V. (2020). Katehoriina matrytsia teoretychnoi psykholohii [Categorical matrix of theoretical psychology]. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo - Psychology and society, 2, 13-51 [in Ukrainian].


Furman A.V. Metodolohichna optyka yak instrument myslevchynennia. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo. Ternopil, 2022. № 2. S. 6-48.

Furman, A.V. (2014). Teoretychna model' hry yak uchynennya [Theoretical model of the game as an act]. Nauka i osvita. Psykholohiya. - Sciense and education. Psychology, 5/CXXII, 95104 [in Ukrainian].

Furman, A.V. & Shandruk, S.K. (2014). Orhanizatsiyno-diyalnisni ihry u vyshchiy shkoli [Organizational-activity games in high school]. Ternopil: TNEU [in Ukrainian].

Khairulin O.M. Habitus yak subiektna matrytsia sotsialnoi hry. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo. Ternopil, 2023. №1. S. 79-101.


Khairulin, O.M. (2021). Diapazon rozvyvalnoho potentsialu hry yak subiektnoi prohramy [The range of developmental potential of the game as a subject program]. Psykholohiia i suspilstvo, 1, 82-116. [in Ukrainian].


Khairulin O.M. Psykholohiia ihrovoho modeliuvannia sotsialnoho zhyttia subiekta : monohrafiia. Ternopil : ZUNU, 2021. 404 s.

Shenherii, L.M. (2009). Lohika ta ratsionalnist: analityka vzaiemozviazku [Logic and rationality: an analysis of the relationship]. Doctor's thesis. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

A History of Modern Psychology, Ninth Edition. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz Thomson Learning, Inc. 2008. 561 p.

Dixit, A., Skeat S., Reiley D. (2015). Games of Strategy. Fourth Edition. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Barry Smith. The Basic Tools of Formal Ontology. Formal Ontology in Information Systems. 1998, P. 19-28.

Eden Gray. (1972). A Complete Guide to the Tarot. A Bantam Book. New York.

Ervin Laszlo. (1975). "Basic Constructs of Systems Philosophy," in Brent D. Ruben and John Y. Kim, eds., General System Theory and Human Communication (Rochelle Park, N.Y.: Hayden Book Co., 1975), p. 68.

Gamification. Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition. Volume IV. Categories: Ed-Geo. 2015 by IGI Global. P. 3039-3047.


Guarino, N. (1998). Formal Ontology and Information Systems. Proceedings of FOIS'98, 3-15.

Formal Ontology in Information Systems. (2008). IOS Press.

Jesse Schell. The Art of Game Design. A Book of Lenses. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2008. 489 p.

Mesoamerican ballgame. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_ballgame

Michel Foucault. The Order of Things. London and New York: Routledge Classics 2002. 422p.

Theories of Personality, Eleventh Edition, Duane P. (2015). Schultz and Sydney Ellen Schultz. Cengage Learning.

VandenBos, G.R. (2006). APA dictionary of psychology. 1st ed. Washington.




How to Cite

Khairulin, Oleg. “Ontological Modeling of the Psychological Field of a Play”. Psyhology & Society, no. 2, Dec. 2023, pp. 106-41, https://doi.org/10.35774/pis2023.02.106.