Lifestyle and cognitive functioning of Filipino older adults as basis for cognitive enhancement programme


  • Agnes Santos Master of Arts in Psychology, Centro Escolar University, Makati, Philippines
  • Dorothea Dela Cruz Department of Psychology, Centro Escolar University, Manila
  • Dennis Relojo-Howell MSc, MBPsS, founder of psychreg, fellow of the International Society for Critical Health Psychology, fellow of the British Psychological Society, master of psychology University of Hertfordshire, London, United Kingdom. ORCID: 0000-0001-8898-2077



cognitive enhancement, cognitive functioning, intervention programme, lifestyle, older adults


The primary focus of this study is to examine the physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual components of the lifestyle of older adults, with the fundamental aim of designing a cognitive enhancement programme. A total of 142 older adults have taken part, all of whom have normal cognitive functioning. Results revealed that perceptual organisation has significant relationship to developmental age (F = 3.99, p < 0.021). Processing speed has also been found to have a significant link to developmental age (F = 8.02, p < 0.021),      p < 0.001. The gender of older adults has no significant relationship to verbal comprehension, perceptual organisation, working memory, and processing speed. In contrast, working memory is linked to civil status (F = 3.45, p < 0.021), p < 0.01. Processing speed was also found to have a significant relationship to civil status (F = 2.71, p < 0.021), p < 0.03. Finally, educational attainment has no significant link to verbal comprehension, perceptual organisation, working memory, and processing speed.


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How to Cite

Santos, Agnes, et al. “Lifestyle and Cognitive Functioning of Filipino Older Adults As Basis for Cognitive Enhancement Programme”. Psyhology & Society, no. 4, Jan. 2021, pp. 97-105,

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